Seminars & Events

Learn From Faculty Whose Theories
are Reshaping the Field






Friday, October 11,  2019

Nir Halevy


Strategic Thinking in Everyday Life: A Social-Cognitive Approach

Friday, October 18, 2019

Nava Ashraf


Negotiating a Better Future: How Interpersonal Skills Facilitate Inter-Generational Investment 

Friday, November 8, 2019

Joshua Knobe



Friday, December 6, 2019

Judd Kessler


Equity Concerns are Narrowly Framed

Date Speaker University Title/Paper
Friday, June 7, 2019 David Robinson Duke Talking About the Weather: Understanding Household Demand for Green Investment
Friday, May 31, 2019 Gretchen Carnegie Mellon University Changing Health Behavior without Changing Beliefs
Friday, May 10, 2019 Christopher Hsee University of Chicago TBD
Friday, May 3, 2019 Ayelet Gneezy UCSD TBD
Friday, April 19, 2019 Dan Simon USC The Adversarial Mindset
Friday, April 12, 2019 Thomas Mussweiler
(joint with M&O)
London Business School Social Comparison: Ubiquity and Flexibility of a Basic Mechanism
Friday, March 15, 2019 Richard Gonzalez University of Michigan Innovating Innovation with both Data Science and Behavioral Science
Friday, March 1, 2019 David Rand MIT Fake News: Why We Fall For It and What To Do About It
Friday, February 22, 2019 Hunt Allcott NYU Should We Tax Soda? Optimal Public Policy with Behavioral Bias and Regressivity
Friday, January 25, 2019
Daniel Benjamin USC Social-Science Genomics: A Primer and Progress Report
Friday, January 18, 2019 David Yang Harvard The Coordination Consequences of Media Censorship: Experimental Evidence from China
Friday, January 11, 2019 Sonya Lyubomirsky UC Riverside Whither Happiness? When, How, and Why Might Positive Activities Boost vs. Undermine Well-Being
December 7, 2018 Jennifer Trueblood Vanderbilt University The Dynamics of Context-Dependent Preferences
November 30, 2018 Colin Camerer Caltech Loss Attitudes in the U.S. Population: Evidence from Dynamically Optimized Sequential Experimentation (DOSE)
November 9, 2018
Daniel Feiler Dartmouth From Noise to Bias in Linked Decisions
October 26, 2018 Carey Morewedge Boston University Improved Decision Making with One-Shot Training Interventions
October 19, 2018 Uri Gneezy UC San Diego Stakes & Mistakes
June 1, 2018 Charles Sprenger UC San Diego Direct Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory
May 18, 2018 Janet Schwartz Tulane University Bringing Ulysses to Scale: A Tale of Persistence, Spillovers and Customer Loyalty
April 27, 2018 Ariel Rubinstein (joint with Strategy) Tel Aviv University & NYU A Typology of Players: Between Instinctive and Contemplative
April 6, 2018 Anuj Shah University of Chicago Booth School of Business Deciding Who Gets What, Fairly
March 15, 2018 Benjamin Enke (joint with Global Economics and Management) Harvard University Kinship Systems, Cooperation, and the Evolution of Culture
March 8, 2018 Ulrike Malmendier (joint with GEM and Finance) UC Berkeley The Long-Lasting Effects of Propaganda on Financial Risk-Taking
March 2, 2018 Devin Pope University of Chicago Booth School of Business Expanding Beyond Statistical and Taste-Based Discrimination
February 2, 2018 Jennifer Jacquet New York University Experimenting with Cooperation and Climate Change
January 19, 2018 Emir Kamenica University of Chicago Booth School of Business Coming apart? Lives of the rich and the poor over time" (joint with Marianne Bertrand)
December 1, 2017 Yuval Rottenstreich UC San Diego Reciprocity, Attributions, and Principled Defection: On Social Roots of Non-Cooperative Behavior
November 17, 2017 Ellen Evers UC Berkeley Elicitation Based Preference Reversals in Willingness to Pay and Choice
November 3, 2017 Jason Dana Yale University Exposure to random anchors improves judgments
October 20, 2017 Muriel Niederle Stanford University A Gender Agenda: From the Lab to the Field to Policy
October 6, 2017 Sudeep Bhatia University of Pennsylvania Knowledge Representation in Decision Making
September 15, 2017 Soo Hong Chew National University of Singapore Ellsberg meets Keynes: Missing Links among Sources of Uncertainty
June 9, 2017 Art Markman University of Texas at Austin Evaluating Negotiation Agents
June 2, 2017 Lisa Ordonez University of Arizona Goals: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly
May 5, 2017 Paul Piff UC Irvine The Social Effects of Wealth
April 21, 2017 Nicholas Scurich UC Irvine Jurors' Presumption of Innocence
April 7, 2017 Paul Atchley University of Kansas Fooling ourselves: Why do we drive distracted even though we know it's dangerous?
March 17, 2017 Robert Meyer Wharton (When) Are people dynamically optimal?
March 3, 2017 Dan Goldstein Microsoft Research To put that in perspective: Generating analogies that make numbers more easily understood by laypeople
February 17, 2017 Rick Larrick Duke University Attributions of Creativity for Team Products
February 3, 2017 Hilke Plassmann INSEAD Peacocks, Testosterone & Luxury Goods: Single-dose testosterone Administration Increases Preference for Status Goods
January 27, 2017    Alex Imas Carnegie Mellon University Can Reputation Reverse Gender Bias? A Field Experiment on the Dynamics of Discrimination
December 9, 2016 Shane Frederick Yale University Risk Aversion, Hedging, and Construct (In)validity Abstract
November 18, 2016 Gregory Samanez-Larkin Yale University Decision Making in the Aging Brain: A Neuroeconomic Translational Approach
November 4, 2016 Michael I. Norton Harvard Business School Wanting, Voting, and Paying for Greater Equality Abstract
October 28, 2016 Henghchen Dai
Faculty Recruitment Candidate
Co-sponsored with M&O Academic Area
Olin Business School Fresh Starts: A Double-Edged Sword
Details/Further InfoAbstract
April 29, 2016 Saurabh Bhargava Carnegie Mellon University The Complexity of Health Plan Choice: Challenges and Policy Remedies
April 22, 2016 Robert H. Frank Cornell University Success and Luck
April 8, 2016 Gal Zauberman Yale School of Management How Taking Photos Affects Enjoyment and Memory of Experiences
March 11, 2016 Maurice Schweitzer Wharton Bliss is Ignorance: Perceptions of Extreme versus Moderate Happiness
February 19, 2016 Bertram Malle Brown University Updating the Map of Moral Judgment
February 5, 2016 Ellen Peters Ohio State University Multiple Numeric Competencies in Judgment and Decisions
January 22, 2016 David Budescu FOrdham University Aggregating Information by Harnessing the "Wisdom of Crowds": New Theoretical Results and Empirical Findings
January 8, 2016 Paul Zak Claremont Graduate University The Neuroscience of Persuasion: Applications to Marketing and Consumer Experiences
December 9, 2015 Shane Frederick Yale University Risk Aversion, Hedging, and Construct (In)validity
November 18, 2015 Gregory Samanez-Larkin Yale University Decision Making in the Aging Brain: A Neuroeconomic Translational Approach?
November 4, 2015 Michael I. Norton Harvard University

Wanting, Voting, and Paying for Greater Equality

October 28, 2015 Henghchen Dai Olin Business School Fresh Starts: A Double-Edged Sword
May 22, 2015 Uma Karmarkar Harvard Business School Chasing Without Knowing: Asymmetric Effects of Favorable and Unfavorable Information in Uncertain Decisions
May 1, 2015 Klaus Wertenbroch INSEAD

Judging Good Taste: True Preference or Prestense?

April 17, 2015 Chip Heath Stanford University Defining Moments
February 20, 2015 William Maddux Organizational Behavior, INSEAD A Moveable Feast: How Transformational Cross-Cultural Experiences Affect Psychological and Organizational Performance
February 6, 2015 Adam Galinsky Columbia Business School When Hierarchy Wins and When It Kills
January 23, 2015 Devin G. Pope University of Chicago Bid Takers or Market Makers? The Effect of Auctioneers on Auction Outcomes
January 9, 2015 George Loewenstein Carnegie Mellon University Moving Beyond Nudging: Behavioral Economics and Health Insurance
December 5, 2014

Sunitah Sah Georgetown University Effective Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest Abstract
November 7, 2014 Maya Shankar White House Office of Science & Technology Policy Building a Bridge Between Academic Research and the Federal Government: Lessons Learned from a Case Study Launching the White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team Abstract
October 17, 2014 Kelly Goldsmith Northwestern University Examining the Psychological Consequences of Exposure to Reminders of Resource Scarcity Abstract
October 3, 2014 Derek J. Koehler University of Waterloo Giving Up and Chickening Out Abstract
May 23, 2014 Zev Eigen Northwestern University An Experimental Test of the Effectiveness of Terms & Conditions Abstract
May 2, 2014 Katherine L. Milkman University of Pennsylvania Motivating Virtuous Behavior Abstract
April 25, 2014 Daniel J. Benjamin Cornell University Assessing the Use of Happiness Survey Responses as Utility Proxies Abstract
March 7, 2014 Todd Rogers Harvard University How Change Sticks: How Treatment Effects Can Persist After Treatment Has Been Discontinued Abstract
February 28, 2014 Norbert Schwarz University of Southern California Metaphor and Experience in Judgment and Decision Making: Of Fishy Smells and Heavy Weights Abstract
February 21, 2014 Linda Babcock Carnegie Mellon University Breaking the Glass Ceiling with "No": Gender Differences in the Demand and Supply of Non-Promotable Tasks Abstract
January 24, 2014 Don Moore UC Berkeley Optimistic About Optimism: The Belief that Optimism Improves Performance Abstract
January 10, 2014 Julia Minson Harvard University The Fickle Wisdom of Dyads: When Discussion Undermines Versus Enhances the Benefits of Judgment Collaboration Abstract
November 8, 2013 Dean Karlan Yale University To Charge or Not to Charge: Evidence From a Health Products Experiment in Uganda Abstract
October 25, 2013 Hal E. Hershfield New York University Conceptions of the Future Transform Intertemporal Choice Abstract
October 11, 2013 Jonathan Levav Stanford University Choice Utility Abstract
June 7, 2013 John Payne Duke University Retired and Broke or Nifty at Ninety: An Update on a Program of Behavioral Research on Managing Longevity Risk Abstract
May 24, 2013 John Friedman Harvard University Active vs. Passive Decisions and Crowd-Out in Retirement Savings Accounts: Evidence from Denmark Abstract
April 26, 2013 Brigitte Madrian Harvard University Active Choice and Health Care Costs: Evidence from Prescription Drug Home Delivery Abstract
March 15, 2013 Deepak Malhotra Harvard University Trust and Reciprocity: Lab and Field Experiments Abstract
March 8, 2013 Eric J. Johnson & Elke U. Weber Columbia University Query Theory and Deciding What We Choose Abstract
March 1, 2013 George Loewenstein Carnegie Mellon University This is Your Brain on Emotion: Implications of an Evolutionary Account on Affect Abstract
February 22, 2013 Martin Weber University of Mannheim Time Inconsistent Preferences and the Annuitization Decision Abstract
February 8, 2013 Sanford DeVoe University of Toronto Financial & Emotional Well-Being in the Era of Impatience Abstract
January 25, 2013 Peter Ayton City University London Deal or No Deal, Terrorism and Bicycle Accidents: Effects of Emotions on Risky Decision s and Vice Versa Abstract
January 9, 2013 David Laibson Harvard University Natural Expectations, Macroeconomic Dynamics, and Asset Pricing Abstract
December 14, 2012 Klaus Wertenbroch INSEAD Conspicuous Consumption Reflects How Redistribution Influences Perceived Social Justice Abstract
December 7, 2012 Cass Sunstein Harvard University Deciding by Default: Perspectives from Behavioral Economics Abstract
November 30, 2012 Leonard Lee Columbia University The Consistent Consumer Abstract
October 26, 2012 Keith Chen Yale University The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Evidence from Savings Rates, Health Behaviors, and Retirement Assets Abstract
October 12, 2012 Eugene M. Caruso University of Chicago Why the Future is Bigger (and "Badder") Than the Past Abstract
May 11, 2012 David Laibson Harvard University & NBER Self-Control and Liquidity: How to Design a Commitment Contract Abstract
May 4, 2012 Jeff Brown University of Illinois Attitudes Toward Government as Determinants of Intertemporal Choice Abstract
April 20, 2012 James Choi Yale University Small Cues Change Savings Choices Abstract
April 4, 2012 Zev Eigen Northwestern University When and Why Individuals Obey Contracts: Experimental Evidence of Consent, Compliance, Promise, and Performance Abstract
March 9, 2012 Steven Sloman Brown University The Use and Abuse of Causal Knowledge Abstract
February 24, 2012 Antoine Bechara University of Southern California Decision-Making: The Neurological Side of the Story Abstract
February 10, 2012 Drazen Prelec MIT Finding Truth When Most People Are Wrong Abstract
January 27, 2012 Max Bazerman Harvard University Bounded Ethicality Abstract
January 13, 2012 Mili Milosavljevic Stanford University Visual vs Brand Equity: A Battle for Consumer Attention and Choice Abstract
November 18, 2011 Leif D. Nelson UC Berkeley When People Pay for Something Free: The Psychology of Pay-What-You-Want Pricing Abstract
October 21, 2011 Joseph C. Nunes University of Southern California The Essence of a Brand: The Impact of Intentionality on Customization Abstract
October 7, 2011 Katherine Milkman University of Pennsylvania The Temporal Discrimination Effect: An Audit Study in Academia Abstract
May 27, 2011 Arie Kapteyn RAND Corporation Framing Effects and Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior Abstract
May 13, 2011 Dan Goldstein Yahoo! Research and London Business School Predicting Individual Behavior with Social Networks Abstract
April 29, 2011 David Schkade UC San Diego Living with Constructed Preferences Abstract
March 4, 2011 Yuval Rottenstreich NYU Three Properties of Loss Aversion Abstract
February 18, 2011 Stefano DellaVigna UC Berkeley Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving Abstract
February 4, 2011 Baruch Fischhoff Carnegie Mellon University The Adequacy of Risk Communications Abstract
January 21, 2011 John W. Payne Duke University Consumer Financial Decisions Abstract
January 7, 2011 J. Edward Russo Cornell University Predecisional Distortion of Information: The Good, the Bad, and the Weird" Abstract
December 10, 2010 Eldar Shafir Princeton University Decisions Under Scarcity Abstract
November 12, 2010 Derek Koehler University of Waterloo A Dual-System Account of Probability Matching: Strategies and Expectations Abstract
October 29, 2010 Christopher K. Hsee University of Chicago Simulating Life in the Lab Abstract
October 15, 2010 Jonathan Levav Columbia University Prisoners of Their Own Resources Abstract
May 28, 2010 Sheena Iyengar Columbia University The Art of Choosing Abstract
May 7, 2010 Uri Simonsohn University of Pennsylvania Spurious? Name Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) in Marriages and Moves Abstract
April 23, 2010 Ted O'Donoghue Cornell University The Nature of Risk Preferences: Evidence from Insurance Choices Abstract
April 9, 2010 Sendhil Mullainathan Harvard University Self-Control and Poverty: Two Applications Abstract
March 12, 2010 Michael Morris Columbia University Dynamics of Cultural Influence on Judgment and Decision Making Abstract
February 26, 2010 Maurice Schweitzer University of Pennsylvania Anxiety, Negotiations, and Advice Taking Abstract
February 19, 2010 Daniel Read University of Durham / Yale University "Instant Rationality: The Effect of Using Interest Rates to Express Intertemporal Preferences Abstract
February 5, 2010 Rachel Croson University of Texas at Dallas Social Influences in Giving to Public Radio Abstract
January 22, 2010 Elena Katok Penn State University Fairness and Coordination Failures in Supply Chain Contracts Abstract
January 8, 2010 Wendy Wood University of Southern California Are Habits a Kind of Self-Regulation? Abstract
November 20, 2009 Yaacov Trope NYU The Psychology of Transcending the Here and Now Abstract
November 6, 2009 R. Duncan Luce UC Irvine Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility for 2 of 3 Types of People Abstract
October 16, 2009 Roy Baumeister Florida State University Self-Regulation, Choice, and Ego Depletion Abstract
October 2, 2009 Gavan Fitzsimmons Duke University The Unconscious Consumer Abstract
May 29, 2009 Hersh Shefrin Santa Clara University How Psychological Pitfalls Caused the Financial Crunch Abstract
May 8, 2009 Suresh Muthulingam UCLA Managerial Biases and Energy Savings: An Empirical Analysis of the Adoption of Process Improvement Recommendations Abstract
April 24, 2009 George Loewenstein Carnegie Mellon University Using Decision Errors to Help People Abstract
April 10, 2009 Ofer Azar Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Relative Thinking, Consumer Choice, Task Performance, and Firm Strategy Abstract
March 6, 2009 Mara Mather University of California Age and Sex Differences in the Effects of Stress on Decision Making Abstract
February 27, 2009 John Payne Duke University The Importance of the Overall Probability of Winning (Not Losing) in Risky Choice Abstract
February 13, 2009 Howard Kunreuther University of Pennsylvania The Role of Goals and Plans in Decision Making Abstract
February 6, 2009 Ellen Peters Decision Research Number Skills, Both Controlled and Intuitive, Guide Decisions Abstract
January 16, 2009 Nicholas Epley University of Chicago Seeing Human Abstract
December 5, 2008 Oleg Urminsky University of Chicago Scope Insensitive Justifications: The Mere Token Effect Abstract
November 21, 2008 Lynn Vavreck UCLA The Message Matters: The Economy and Presidential Campaigns Abstract
November 7, 2008 Thomas Langer CalTech Can Prospect Theory Be Used to Predict Investor's Willingness to Pay? Abstract
October 17, 2008 Dan Ariely MIT (Dis)Honesty: Why Honest People Cheat Abstract
June 6, 2008 Antonio Rangel CalTech The Neuroeconomics of Goal-Directed Choice Abstract
May 16, 2008 David Laibson Harvard University Instant Gratification Abstract
May 5, 2008 Maya Bar-Hillel The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Bible Code: A Scientific Riddle and Its Solution Abstract
May 2, 2008 Emir Kamenica University of Chicago Contextual Inference, Choice Overload, and Simplicity Seeking Abstract
April 25, 2008 Vernon L. Smith Chapman University Specialization and Exchange: Discovery, Property Rights and Wealth Creation Abstract
April 23, 2008 Richard H. Thaler University of Chicago Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness Abstract
April 4, 2008 Paul Zak Claremont Graduate University The Neuroeconomics of Virtue Abstract
February 29, 2008 Peter H. Ditto UC Irvine Motivated Moral Reasoning Abstract
February 22, 2008 Baba Shiv Stanford University Is Emotion Good or Bad for Human Decision Making: A Neuroscience Perspective Abstract
February 8, 2008 Sendhil Mullainathan Harvard University Confusion in Medicare Part D Abstract
January 25, 2008 Jonathan Levav Columbia University Order in Product Customization Decisions Abstract
January 18, 2008 Piotr Winkielman UC San Diego Why Do We Like Things? Abstract
December 7, 2007 Elke Weber Columbia University Decisions Under Uncertainty: Psychological, Economic, and Neuroeconomic Explanations of Risk Preference Abstract
November 16, 2007 Maya Bar-Hillel The Hebrew University, Israel Status Quo Bias: The Effect of Mere Labeling Abstract
November 2, 2007 Valerie Reyna Cornell University Risk, Emotion, and Rationality in Decision Making: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach Abstract
October 12, 2007 James Choi Yale University The Flypaper Effect in Individual Investor Asset Allocation Abstract
June 1, 2007 Dan Goldstein London Business School A New Way to Measure Consumer Risk Preferences Abstract
May 25, 2007 Shane Frederick MIT Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making Abstract
May 11, 2007 Justin Wolfers University of Pennsylvania Racial Discrimination Among NBA Referees Abstract
April 27, 2007 David Budescu University of Illinois "Taking Wason to the Market: Studies of the Wason Selection Task in Competitive Markets Abstract
April 13, 2007 Ralph L. Keeney Duke University Specifying Objectives for Important Decisions Abstract
March 9, 2007 Paul Slovic University of Oregon From Preference Reversals to Preference Construction: A Long and Wandering Tale Abstract
February 23, 2007 Tom Gilovich Cornell University A Tale of Three Biases Abstract
February 9, 2007 Itamar Simonson Stanford University The Effect of Stating Expectations on Satisfaction and Experience Abstract
January 26, 2007 Daniel Oppenheimer Princeton University The Secret Life of Fluency Abstract
January 12, 2007 Dan Simon University of Southern California Decision Making by Constraint Satisfaction: Transience and Robustness Abstract
December 1, 2006 Uri Gneezy UC San Diego Gender Differences in Competition: The Role of Socialization Abstract
November 17, 2006 Russell Korobkin UCLA Who Wins in Distributive Negotiations? Hypotheses from Behavioral Decision Making and Rational Choice Perspectives Abstract
November 3, 2006 Colin Camerer California Institute of Technology Behavioral Economics and Neuroeconomics Abstract
October 27, 2006 Brad Barber UC Davis Do Noise Traders Move Markets? Abstract
May 26, 2006 David Schkade UC Davis A Model of the Structure of Well Being: Experienced Affect and Life Satisfaction in France and the U.S. Abstract
May 19, 2006 George Loewenstein Carnegie Mellon University Animal Spirits: Affective and Deliberative Processes in Economic Behavior Abstract
May 12, 2006 Zur Shapira NYU Organizations' Control of Their Market Factors: Managing the Risk of Government Bond Traders Abstract
April 28, 2006 Will Goetzmann Yale University Bubble Investors: What Were They Thinking? Abstract
March 10, 2006 Moshe Levy Hebrew University of Jerusalem Loss Aversion and the Price of Risk Abstract
February 24, 2006 Eric Johnson Columbia University Loss Aversion, Query Theory, and Consumer Choice Abstract
February 17, 2006 Bobbie Spellman University of Virginia Of Courtrooms and War Rooms: Decisions Requiring the Assessment of Deception, Reliability, Calibration, and the Attempt to Conceal Information Abstract
February 10, 2006 Lehman Benson III University of Arizona It's About Time! Research on the Relationship Between Time Pressure and Decision Making Abstract
January 27, 2006 Daniel McFadden UC Berkeley A New Science of Pleasure: Consumer Behavior and the Measurement of Well-Being Abstract
January 20, 2006 Patrick Suppes Stanford University A Theory of Rational Choice Based on Habits and Associations Rather Than Preferences Abstract
January 13, 2006 Dean Karlan Yale University What's Psychology Worth? A Field Experiment in the Consumer Credit Market Abstract
December 9, 2005 Peter Ayton City University, London Why can't people predict their own emotional reactions?" Abstract
November 18, 2005 Detlof Von Winterfeldt University of Southern California Terrorism Risk Analysis Abstract
November 4, 2005 Kristin Diehl University of Southern California Great Expectations?! Assortment Size, Expectations and Satisfaction Abstract
October 14, 2005 Antoine Bechara University of Southern California Human Emotions in Decision-Making: Useful or Disruptive Role? Abstract
May 31, 2005 Jennifer S. Lerner Carnegie Mellon University Heart Strings and Purse Strings: Effects of Incidental Emotions on Risk Perceptions and Economic Transactions Abstract
May 6, 2005 Terrance Odean UC Berkeley Who Loses from Trade? Evidence from Taiwan Abstract
April 22, 2005 Enrico Diecidue INSEAD Eliciting the Regret Function through the Trade-Off Method Abstract
April 15, 2005 Robert Shiller Yale University Irrational Exuberance and the President's Plan for Personal Accounts Abstract
March 24, 2005 Linda Babcock Carnegie Mellon University Who Goes to the Bargaining Table? Understanding Gender Variation in the Initiation of Negotiations Abstract
March 4, 2005 Barry Schwartz Swarthmore College Self-Determination: The Tyranny of Freedom Abstract
February 11, 2005 Stephen Hoch Wharton The Psychology of Two-Part Tariffs Abstract
January 28, 2005 Dale Griffin University of British Columbia From Individuals to Markets: A Cure for Prediction Bias? Abstract
January 14, 2005 Uri Gneezy University of Chicago The W Effect of Incentives Abstract
June 11, 2004 Craig McKenzie UC San Diego Framing Effects in Inference Tasks - And Why They're Normatively Defensible Abstract