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Teaching Materials

Office Address:                                                                            
UCLA Anderson School of Management                                     
Gold Hall, Room B-415                                                                
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481                                                      
(310) 206-7665                                                                            

Date of Birth: June 26, 1954



Ph.D. Harvard University Business Economics 1982
A.B. Harvard University Economics 1976



Title:  The Learning Curve, Pricing, and Market Structure in the Chemical Processing Industries

Committee:  Richard E. Caves, Michael E. Porter, A. Michael Spence


Academic Positions

2001 - present:  Professor, UCLA Anderson School of Management

1990 - 2001:  Associate Professor, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA

1989 - 1990:  National Fellow, Hoover Institution

1982 - 1989:  Assistant Professor of Business Policy, Graduate School of Business, Stanford           University

1979 - 1981:  Teaching Fellow (Introductory Economics), Harvard University


Academic Honors

TMS Distinguished Speaker, Fall 2009 INFORMS Conference
1996 Best Paper Prize, Strategic Management Journal
Hoover National Fellowship, 1989-90
Shigeo Shingo Prize for Manufacturing Excellence, 1989
Harvard Business School Division of Research Thesis Fellowship, 1981
Browder Thompson Best Paper Award (IEEE), 1979
National Science Foundation Fellowship, 1976-80

Journal Articles

“Learning by Doing and Market Structure,” (with Natarajan Balasubramanian),  Forthcoming, Journal of Industrial Economics. 

“Internal and External Influences on Adoption Decisions in Multi-Unit Firms: The Moderating Effect of Experience,” (with Daniel Simon).  Forthcoming, Strategic Organization, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010.

“Industry Learning Environments and the Heterogeneity of Firm Performance,” (with Natarajan Balasubramanian).   Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4, April 2010, pp. 390-412.

“Acquisition vs. Internal Development as Modes of Market Entry,” (with Gwendolyn Lee).  Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2, February 2010, pp. 140-158.

“How to Measure Company Productivity using Value-added: A Focus on Pohang Steel (POSCO)” (with Jina Kang).  Asia Pacific Journal of Management., Vol. 25, No. 2, June 2008, pp. 209-224.

“Why Do Firms Imitate Each Other?” (with Shigeru Asaba).  Academy of Management Review, Vol.31, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 366-385.

“Assessing the Resource Base of Japanese and U.S. Auto Producers: A Stochastic Frontier Production Function Approach,” (with Rajeev Dhawan), Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 7, July 2005, pp. 1060-1075.

 “The Birth of Capabilities: Market Entry and the Importance of Pre-History,” (with Constance Helfat),  Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 11, No. 4, August 2002, pp. 725-760.

“The Magnesium Industry in Transition,” Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 19, June 2001, pp. 71-79.

“Inventory Reduction and Productivity Growth:  Linkages in the Japanese Automotive Industry,” (with Lieven Demeester), Management Science, Vol. 45, No. 4, April 1999.

“The Empirical Determinants of Inventory Levels in High-Volume Manufacturing,” (with Susan Helper and Lieven Demeester), Production and Operations Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring 1999, pp. 44-55.

“Comparative Productivity of Japanese and US Steel Producers, 1958-1993,” (with Douglas Johnson), Japan and the World Economy, Vol. 11,  No. 1, January 1999, pp. 1-27.

“First-Mover (Dis)Advantages:  Retrospective and Link with Resource-Based View,” (with David Montgomery), Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 19, No. 12, December 1998, pp. 1111-1125.

“Patent Trends in Steelmaking Technologies,” (with Aya Chacar), Iron and Steel Engineer, Vol. 75, No. 8, August 1998, pp. 72-73.

“Inventory Reduction and Productivity Growth:  A Comparison of the Japanese and US Automotive Sectors,” (with Shigeru Asaba).  Managerial and Decision Economics, Special issue on Japanese Technology Management, Vol. 18, No. 2, March 1997, pp. 73-85.

“Determinants of Vertical Integration: An Empirical Test,” Journal of Industrial Economics, Special Issue on Vertical Relationships, Vol. 39, No. 5, September 1991. 

“Exit from Declining Industries: `Shakeout' or `Stakeout'?”  Rand Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, Winter 1990.

Reprinted in Applied Industrial Economics, L. Phlips, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1998.

“Firm-Level Productivity and Management Influence: A Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Automobile Producers,” (with Lawrence Lau and Mark Williams).  Management Science, Vol. 36, No. 10, October 1990.   

“The Learning Curve, Technology Barriers to Entry, and Competitive Survival in the Chemical Processing Industries.”  Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10, No. 5, September-October 1989. 

Reprinted in Innovation, Evolution of Industry, and Economic Growth, D.B. Audretsch and S. Klepper, eds., Edward Elgar, 1999.

“Capacity Utilization:  Theoretical Models and Empirical Tests.”  European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 40, No. 2, May 1989.

“First-Mover Advantages,” (with David Montgomery).  Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, Summer 1988.

Recipient of 1996 SMJ Best Paper Prize (awarded for articles more than five years old with significant impact on the field of strategic management).

Reprinted in Readings in Marketing Strategy, V. J. Cook, J. Larreche and E. C. Strong, eds., Scientific Press, Redwood City, 1989.

Reprinted in Strategic Management, (volume of the International Library of Critical Writings on Business and Management), J. Birkenshaw, ed., Edward Elgar, London, 2003.

“Post-Entry Investment and Market Structure in the Chemical Processing Industries,” Rand Journal of Economics, Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 1987.

“Market Growth, Economies of Scale, and Plant Size in the Chemical Processing Industries,” Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 36, No. 2,  December 1987.

“The Learning Curve, Diffusion, and Competitive Strategy,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 8, No. 5, September-October 1987.

“Patents, Learning by Doing, and Market Structure in the Chemical Processing Industries,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, Vol. 5, No. 3, September 1987.

“Strategies for Capacity Expansion,”  Sloan Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Summer 1987.

“Excess Capacity as a Barrier to Entry:  An Empirical Appraisal,” Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 35, No. 4, June 1987. 

Reprinted in The Empirical Renaissance in Industrial Economics, T. Bresnahan and R. Schmalensee, eds., Basil Blackwell, London, 1987.

“Investment and Coordination in Oligopolistic Industries,” (with Richard Gilbert),  Rand Journal of Economics, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1987.

“The Learning Curve and Pricing in the Chemical Processing Industries,” Rand Journal of Economics, Vol. 15, No. 2, Summer, 1984.

“A Literature Citation Study of Science-Technology Coupling in Electronics,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 1978.  Paper was awarded the Browder Thompson prize for the best research paper by an author under 30 published in an IEEE journal during 1978.


Conference Proceedings (Published)

“Relatedness and Market Exit,” (with Gwendolyn Lee and Tim Folta), forthcoming, Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management, 2010.

“Acquisition vs. Internal Development as Entry Modes for New Business Development: The Dynamics of Firm-Market Relevance,” (with Gwendolyn Lee), Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management, 2007.

“Industry Learning Environments and the Heterogeneity of Firm Performance,” (with Natarajan Balasubramanian), Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management, 2006.

“Why Do Firms Behave Similarly?  A Study on New Product Introduction in the Japanese Soft-drink Industry,” (with Shigeru Asaba), Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management, 1999.

 “Determinants of Vertical Integration: An Empirical Test,” Best Papers Proceedings, Academy of Management, 1991.


Book Chapters

“Business Imitation,” (with Shigeru Asaba), in Charles Wankel, ed., Handbook of 21st Century Management (Sage, 2007).

“Organizing for Technological Innovation in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry,” (with Aya Chacar), in Joel Baum and Olav Sorenson, eds., Geography and Strategy (Advances in Strategic Management, Volume 20, Elsevier, 2003).

“Dow Chemical and the Magnesium Industry,” in D. I. Rosenbaum, ed., Market Dominance: How Firms Gain, Hold or Lose It and the Impact on Economic Performance, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1998, pp. 69-87.

“Distribution of Returns Among Stakeholders: Method and Application to US and Japanese Auto Companies,” (with Aya Chacar), in H. Thomas and D. O’Neal, eds., Strategic Discovery: Competing in New Arenas, Wiley, 1997, pp. 299-313.

“Strategy of Market Entry: Pioneer or Follow?” (with David Montgomery).  In Handbook of Business Strategy, H. E. Glass, ed., Warren, Gorham & Lamont, 1991.

“Inventory Reduction and Productivity Growth: A Study of Japanese Automobile Producers.”  In Manufacturing Strategy, J. E. Ettlie, M. C. Burstein and A. Feigenbaum, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.

“Learning, Productivity, and US-Japan Industrial Competitiveness.”  In Managing International Manufacturing, K. Ferdows, ed., North Holland, 1989.

“Estimating the Benefits to Society from Integrated Circuit Innovations: the Case of MOS Dynamic RAM's,” in R. Wilson et al., Innovation, Competition and Government Policy in the Semiconductor Industry, Lexington Books, 1981, pp. 122-31.


Other Publications

“First Mover Advantages,” forthcoming in Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management, MacMillan.

“The Revitalization of US Manufacturing,” Institute for International Economic Studies, Tokyo, Japan, Seminar Series 9706, June 1997.


Papers Under Review and Work in Progress

Market Entry

“Relatedness and Market Exit,” (with Gwendolyn Lee and Tim Folta), January 2010. 

“Did First-Mover Advantage Survive the Dot-Com Crash?”  December 2007.  (Presented at CMU, Emory, Maryland, NYU, Wharton, UC Berkeley, UCLA and the Stanford and Utah Strategy Conferences.)

Automotive Sector

“Measuring Value Creation and its Distribution among Stakeholders of the Firm,” (with Natarajan Balasubramanian), July 2007. 

“The Productivity Enhancing Impact of Suppliers Associations in the Japanese Auto Industry,” (with Mari Sako and Kazuo Wada), March 1999.

Chemical Industry Sector

“Bandwagon Effects in Capacity Investment of Chemical Industries,” (with Shigeru Asaba),  April 2000. 

 “What Determines the Number of Firms? Cost Structure and Producer Concentration in Homogeneous Product Industries” August 1999.  (Presented at Harvard Business School, U.C. Berkeley, USC, U.S. Department of Justice, and UBC.) 

“Entrants’ Strategies in the Chemical Process Industries,” January 1994.  (Presented at the Academy of Management national meeting, Dallas, Texas, August 1994.)


Cases and Teaching Notes

Lectures on "Creation and Distribution of Economic Value"
The Magnesium Industry in 1964 (A), S-BP-231A
The Magnesium Industry 1964-1974 (B), S-BP-231B
The Magnesium Industry 1974-1982 (C), S-BP-231C
Magnesium Industry Teaching Note
Learning Curve Computer Exercise
Teaching Note on the Learning Curve Computer Exercise
Note on Production Economics:  Cost Structures and Process Types


Courses Taught

Business Strategy
Industry Structure and Competitive Strategy
Market Entry Strategy
Strategies for Internet Business
Production/Operations Management
Introductory Economics


Invited Presentations

Carnegie-Mellon University
Columbia University
Duke University
Emory University
Florida International University
Harvard University
Institute for International Economic Studies
Kobe University
London Business School
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
New York University
Northwestern University
Southern Methodist University
University of British Columbia
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Irvine
University of California, San Diego
University of Chicago
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
University of Maryland
University of Michigan
University of Minnesota
University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)
University of Rochester
University of Southern California
University of Texas at Austin
University of Toronto
University of Washington
University of Wisconsin, Madison
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Federal Trade Commission
Washington University at St. Louis


Professional Societies

Academy of Management
American Economic Association
Strategic Management Society
Production/Operations Management Society



Strategic Management Journal (Editorial Board)



Revised: April 2010